Beyond the Surface: A Deeper Understanding of Keratoconus

Beyond the Surface: A Deeper Understanding of Keratoconus

March 22, 2023

What Is Keratoconus?

Keratoconus is a progressive eye condition characterized by the thinning and bulging of the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped front surface of the eye. The cornea plays a vital role in focusing light onto the retina to produce clear images. In keratoconus, the cornea becomes irregularly shaped, which can lead to distorted vision and other visual impairments.

Keratoconus is estimated to affect 1 in every 2,000 people worldwide. Although the condition can develop at any age, it typically starts during puberty and progresses into the early adult years. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of keratoconus, and individuals with a family history of the condition or certain health issues may be at a higher risk.

What Causes Keratoconus?

Although the exact cause of keratoconus is still unknown, it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some studies suggest that genetic predisposition plays a significant role, as the condition tends to run in families. Environmental factors, such as eye rubbing, allergies, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, may also contribute to the development and progression of keratoconus.

Certain health conditions have been associated with an increased risk of developing keratoconus. These include Down syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and connective tissue disorders. Additionally, individuals with a history of atopic diseases, such as eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis, may be more susceptible to the condition.

Normal cornea vs keratoconus

Symptoms of Keratoconus

One of the primary symptoms of keratoconus is blurred or distorted vision, which can make it difficult to read, drive, or recognize faces. As the cornea becomes more irregularly shaped, vision problems may worsen.

People with keratoconus often experience increased sensitivity to light, particularly bright sunlight or artificial lighting. This can make it uncomfortable to be in well-lit environments and may cause squinting or eye discomfort.

Keratoconus can also cause eye strain and headaches due to the difficulty in focusing and the constant effort required to maintain clear vision.

Diagnosing Keratoconus

1. Eye exams and visual acuity tests: A comprehensive eye exam is essential for diagnosing keratoconus. During the exam, an ophthalmologist or optometrist will conduct a visual acuity test to measure the sharpness of your vision.

2. Corneal mapping and topography: Corneal mapping and topography are essential diagnostic tools for keratoconus. These techniques provide detailed images of the cornea's surface and curvature, allowing eye care professionals to detect irregularities and monitor the progression of the condition.

3. Other diagnostic tests: In some cases, additional tests may be performed to confirm a diagnosis of keratoconus or assess the severity of the condition. These tests may include pachymetry (measuring corneal thickness)

Treatment Options for Keratoconus

Treatment Options for Keratoconus

Managing Keratoconus

Regular eye exams are crucial for individuals with keratoconus to monitor the progression of the condition and to adjust treatment plans as needed. Early detection and proper management can help maintain optimal vision and prevent further deterioration of the cornea.

In addition to regular eye exams and appropriate treatment options, adopting certain lifestyle changes can help improve vision and manage keratoconus symptoms. These changes may include:

Protecting your eyes from UV radiation: Wearing sunglasses with 100% UVA and UVB protection can help shield your eyes from harmful rays that may worsen the condition.

Avoiding eye rubbing: Rubbing your eyes can aggravate keratoconus and potentially accelerate its progression.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle: Eating a balanced diet rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals can support overall eye health. Regular exercise and stress management techniques can also contribute to better eye health.


In conclusion, keratoconus is an eye condition characterized by the thinning and bulging of the cornea, which can lead to blurred or distorted vision, sensitivity to light, and eye strain. The condition is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and certain health conditions may increase the risk of its development. Diagnosis involves comprehensive eye exams, corneal mapping, and other diagnostic tests.

Treatment options for keratoconus include contact lenses, eyeglasses with specialized lenses, and surgical procedures like corneal cross-linking and corneal transplant. Managing the condition requires regular eye exams, monitoring of progression, and lifestyle changes to support vision and eye health.

If you are experiencing symptoms of keratoconus, it is essential to seek professional advice and support from an eye care professional. Early detection and proper management can help maintain your vision and improve your quality of life.


What is keratoconus?
Keratoconus is a progressive eye disease in which the normally round cornea thins and begins to bulge into a cone-like shape, causing distorted and blurred vision.
What causes keratoconus?
The exact cause of keratoconus is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some of the known risk factors include genetics, eye rubbing, chronic eye irritation, and atopic diseases like eczema.
Can keratoconus be cured?
There is no cure for keratoconus, but there are treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease.
How can I manage the symptoms of keratoconus?
You can manage the symptoms of keratoconus by wearing glasses or contact lenses, avoiding eye rubbing, using artificial tears to lubricate the eyes, and avoiding activities that can cause eye strain.